25 March 2017
Focus
AÀtWmkv ]mXncnsb Adnbpt¼mÄ
Dr. kuriyakose
Published on Wednesday Mar 01, 2017
aebmf¯nse sshÚm\nI kmlnXy¯nsâ thcpIÄ ]Snªmd³ \mSpIfn \ns¶¯nb anj\dnamcpsS kmkvImcnI kw`mh\IfnemWv At\zjnt¡­~Xv. Hcp P\XbpsS B´cnI kwkvImc¯nsâ kqN\IÄ DÅS§p¶Xv `mjm]camb DÂ]¶§fnemWv. kÀKmßIhpw sshÚm\nIhpamb kmlnXy cN\IÄ, A¨Sn, ]{X§Ä, hnZym`ymk {]hÀ¯\§Ä XpS§nbhbmWv C¯cw kmwkvImcntImÂ]¶§Ä. kÀKmßI kmlnXysamgnsI Cu taJeIfnseÃmw hntZi anj\dnamcmWv BZyNphSp h¨n«pÅXv.

P\nXIclky¯nsâ t]SIw Xpd¶p Ignªncn¡p¶ B[p\nI sshÚm\nI hn¹h¯nte¡pÅ imkv{X¯nsâ KXnthKw hÀ²n¸n¨ BZys¯ NphSphbv]v A¨Sn hnZybpsS BhnÀ`mhambncp¶p. C¡mcy¯n Ncn{Xt_m[apÅhÀ¡v A`n{]mb hyXymkap~­mhm³ CSbnÃ. 1450  PÀa³ {]Xn` Kp«³ _ÀKnsâ t]cn ]Xnªn«pÅ Cu hnkvabw hnÚm\¯nsâ kw`cW¯nepw hnXcW¯nepw hn¹hIcamb hyXnbm\§Ä hcp¯n. Adnhv BÀ¡p thWsa¦nepw F¯n¸nSn¡mhp¶ Hcp P\Iob km[yXbmbn amdnbXv Cu kw`ht¯msSbmWv.

A¨Sn b{´¯nsâ B[p\nI cq]w Kp«³ _ÀKv cq]IÂ]\ sNbvXv \qdp hÀjw ]n¶n«t¸mtg¡pw B hnZy C´ybnepw F¯nt¨À¶p. 1577  t]mÀ¨pKokv anj\dnamÀ tIcf¯n BZys¯ A¨Snime Øm]n¨p. Cutim k`mwKamb tPm¬ tKm¬kmÂhkv F¶ kv]m\njv anj\dnbmWv sIm¨nt¡m«bn Cu A¨Sn kwhn[m\w Bcw`n¨Xv. sXm«Sp¯ hÀjw sImïpw ]n¶mse ssh¸nt¡m«bnepw A¼g¡m«pw A¨SnimeIÄ Øm]n¡s¸Sp¶p~­v. ChnsS A¨Sn¨ IrXnIÄ, C¶p In«nbn«pÅsXms¡bpw XangnemWv F¶XpsIm~­v Cu Ncn{X kw`h¯nsâ Kuchw H«pw Ipdbp¶nÃ; GXp `mjbn ]pkvXIw A¨Sn¨p F¶Xnt\¡mÄ {][m\w, \qX\amb Hcp hnÚm\ hnXcW kwhn[m\w ChnsS cq]wsIm~­p F¶XmWv.

Hcp `mj imkv{Xobambn Nn«s¸Sp¯pI hgn AXnsâ hfÀ¨ Dd¸n¡p¶ LSI§fmWv hymIcWw, \nL­~p, hnÚm\tImiw XpS§nbh. Cu cwK§fn hntZi anj\dnamcpsS kw`mh\ F{Xtbm hnes¸«XmWv. tIcf¯nse kmam\yP\§fpsS kwkmc `mjbpsS hymIcW \nba§Ä eoemXneI¯n\p tijw BZyambn Nn«s¸Sp¯nbXv Cämenb³ anj\dn B©epkv {^m³knkv BWv. IrXn ]t£ e¯o\nembnt¸mbn; aebmfnIÄ¡v {]tbmP\s¸SmsXbpw t]mbn. AXp Imcyamt¡~­. aebmfnIsf aebmfw ]Tn¸n¡pIbmbncp¶nÃ, aebmf¡cbnse¯p¶ hntZinIsf aebmf¯nsâ hgnIÄ Adnbm³ klmbn¡pI F¶Xmbncp¶p e£yw. ]Xns\«mw iXI¯nsâ BZyiXI (1700þ 1712) ¯nemWnXnsâ \nÀamWw. {KÙ\maw, {Kam¯n¡m enwKzm hpÄKmcnkv ae_mdn¡m (ae_mdnse kwkmc`mjbpsS hymIcWw).

BZy \nL­~phnsâ Imcyhpw {i²n¡pI. B©eqkv {^m³knknsâ hymIcW {KÙ¯nsâ Hcp `mKw aebmfw e¯o³ iÐtImiamWv. A§s\ tIcf¡cbnse BZy \nL~­pImc³ F¶ _lpaXnbpw At±l¯n\v AhImis¸«Xmbn. Cu Xmhgnbn Xs¶bmWv, BZys¯ hnÚm\tImihpw cq]wsImÅp¶Xv. AXp ]t£, Ipsd¡qSn t\cs¯ Bbncp¶p, 1678þ 1703 hÀj§fnÂ. IrXnbpsS t]cv tlmÀ¯qkv C³Un¡qkv ae_mdn¡qkv (tIcfmcmaw). tIcf a®nse kky§sf¸änbpff hnÚm\ tImiw. cN\mbXv\¯n Hcp kwLw ]ÞnX·mÀ ]¦ptNÀ¶p. t\XrXzw \ÂInbXv slânIv hm³ doUv F¶ U¨pImc³. aebmfw A£cw BZyambn A¨Snbn hcp¶Xpw CXn Xs¶. 1847  cmPykamNmcw Bcw`n¨psIm~­p PÀa³ anj\dn slÀa³ Kp­À«v aebmf ]{X{]hÀ¯\ Ncn{X¯nsâ IhmShpw Xpd¶p.

tIcf¯nsâ am{Xw A\p`haÃnXv. C´ybnse GXms­~Ãm `mjIfnepw sshÚm\nI taJebn BZy kwcw`IÀ hntZianj\dnamÀ Xs¶. AhÀ ]t£, CXv C´ybnse P\§fpsS sshÚm\nI kmwkvImcnI hnImkw e£yw h¨v GsäSp¯ ZuXyamsW¶v Bcpw AhImis¸ScpXv. B anj\dnamcpsS e£yw aX{]NmcWambncp¶p. B e£yw km[n¡m\pff hgnIÄ F¶ \nebnemWv Cu kmlknI bXv\§fn AhÀ {]thin¡p¶Xv. Ncn{X]camb Hcp \ntbmKw CtXmsSm¸ap~­mbncp¶p F¶p am{Xw. aX{]NmcW¯n\v AhÀ kzoIcn¨ amÀK§Ä `mcXobÀ¡v B[p\nI temI¯nte¡pÅ cmPhoYnIfmbn amdn. ]n¶oSv IqSpX Dbc¯nepw Zqc¯nepw thK¯nepw Cu cwK§fn C´y¡mcpsS kwLSnX bXv\§fp­~mbn. C¶s¯ C´y B hgn¡p cq]s¸SpIbpw sNbvXp.

C¸dªX{Xbpw BZyw Nq~­n¡mWn¨Xpt]mse, B´cnI kwkvImc¯nsâ D]mZm\§fmWv. kwkvImc¯ns\mcp _mlyXew IqSnbp­sÃm. `£Ww, hkv{Xw, Irjn, sXmgnÂ, BhmkhyhØ, kmaqlnI PohnXw F¶nh B _mlykwkvImc¯nsâ NnÓ§fmWv. Cu taJeIfnepw hntZinIfpsS kw`mh\ AhnkvacWobw Xs¶. C¡mcy¯n tIcfs¯ kw_Ôn¨nSt¯mfw t]mÀ¨pKokv A[n\nthiImew Gsd \nÀWmbIamWv.

C´ybn A[n\nthitamlt¯msS BZysa¯nb ]mÝmXy iàn t]mÀ¯pK BWsÃm. 1498  tImgnt¡mSv Im¸mSv IS¸pd¯p I¸end§nb hmkvtImUnKmabn Cu Ncn{Xw Bcw`n¡p¶p. 1662  U¨pImÀ sIm¨nt¡m« ]nSn¨S¡nbtXmsS AXn\p hncmahpambn. GXm­v H¶c \qäm~­p am{Xw \o­ B[n]Xyw. ]t£, C´ybn Hcp Ønckm{amPyØm]\w kz]v\w I~­v t]mÀ¯pKokpImÀ tIcfs¯ AXn\pÅ Xmhfambn IW¡m¡pIbpw X{´{][m\amb Cu sNdnb `qhn`mKs¯ AhcpsS Cãm\pkcWw amänsbSp¡m³ {ian¡pIbpw sNbvXp.

tIcf kv{XoIsf hnhmlw sNbvXv t]mÀ¯pKokv km{amPyt¯mSv Iqdp ]peÀ¯p¶ Hcp ]pXnb Xeapdsb krãns¨Sp¡m³ hsc AhÀ ]²Xnbn«p. ChnsSbp­~mbncp¶ sX§pw IpcpapfIpw imkv{Xobambn Irjn sN¿m³ ]Tn¸n¨p. ASp¯Imewhsc tIcf¯nse Gähpw kar²amb `£yhn`hambncp¶ ac¨o\n saIvknt¡mbn \n¶p tIcf¯nse¯n¨Xp t]mÀ¯pKokpImcmWv. ¹mhv, Bªnen, Iipamhv, ]¸mb, ssIX, IS¹mhv, t]c, B¯ XpS§nbhsbÃmw \½psS a®nte¡hÀ ]dn¨p\«p. tai, Itkc, UkvIv, _©v F¶nhtbmsSm¸w ISemkpw t]\bpw s]³knepw AhÀ sIm~­ph¶p. `£Ww Ign¡m³ ]m{X§Ä ]cnNbs¸Sp¯nbtXmsSm¸w `£Ww apfIpw hn\mKncnbpw tNÀ¯p cpNnIcambn ]mIw sN¿m³ ]Tn¸n¨Xpw AhÀ Xs¶. sdm«nbpw _nkv¡äpw tI¡pw DÄs¸sSbpÅ t_¡dn hn`h§fpw AhcpsS kw`mh\bmWv. kv{XoIfpw ]pcpj·mcpw icocw adbp¶ Ip¸mb§Ä [cn¡m³ am{Xaà Ah CkvXncnbnSp¶ hnZybpw ]Tn¨Xv Ahcn \n¶mWv. IÃp sh«nsbSp¯v sI«nSw ]Wnbp¶ coXnbpw XSn Adp¯v hmXnepw P\mebpw ]nSn¸n¡p¶ X¨phnZybpw AhcpsS Xs¶. hnPmKncnbpw Ipänbpw sImfp¯pw AhcpsS enÌn Xs¶ s]Spw. sI«nS§Ä HmSptabp¶ hnZy tIcfobsc ]Tn¸n¨Xpw aämcpaÃ.

1500  tIcf¯nse¯nb t]mÀ¯pKokv ]S¯eh³ P\d s]s{Um AÄhmcnkv I{_mfnt\msSm¸w D­~mbncp¶ F«p sshZnIcmWv BZyambn C´ybnse¯nb ]mÝmXy anj\dnamÀ. Ahsc ]n´pSÀ¶p ]e bqtdm]y³ cmPy§fn \ns¶¯nb anj\dnamÀ \ÂInb kw`mh\IfmWv BZyta hniZam¡nbXv. 1806  dh. dn¦nÄ tSm_v \mKÀ tImhnen\p kao]apÅ ssaemSnbn BZys¯ hnZym`ymk tI{µw Bcw`n¡p¶Xphsc anj\dnamÀ \m«pImsc hnZy A`ykn¸n¡m³ Xbmdmbncp¶nÃ. tIcfobcmb Ip«nIsf, {]tXyIn¨v A[xØnX hn`mK¡msc Xsâ kvIqfnte¡p dn¦nÄtSm_v kzmKXw sNbvXtXmsS tIcf Ncn{X¯n Hcp ]pXnb A[ymbw Xpd¡pIbmbn.

tIcf¯nse¯nb ]mÝmXy anj\dnamcn Gähpw Xnf¡apÅ hyànXzw AÀtWmkv ]mXncnbptSXmWv. F¶m B hyànXz¯nsâ `n¶ apJ§Ä hkvXp\njvTambn Xncn¨dnbm³ klmbIamb Ncn{XhkvXp¡fpsS A`mhw At±lt¯mSp \oXn ]peÀ¯p¶Xn \n¶p tIcfobsc XSbp¶p.

]n¡me¯p h¶ _©an³ _bven, slÀa³ Kp­À«v XpS§nbhcpsS Imcy¯n C¯csamc\p`hw D­~mbn«nÃ. AXpsIm­~p Xs¶ AhcpsS kw`mh\IÄ AdnªmZcn¡m³ \ap¡p Ignbp¶p. temI¯nsâ ap¼n tIcfs¯bpw C´ysbbpw BZyw AhXcn¸n¨ AÀtWmkv ]mXncn¡v ØeIme§fpsSbpw tZi kmlNcy§fpsSbpw B\pIqeyw Hcn¡epw e`n¡msX t]mbn.
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