28 May 2017
Theology
ZÞhntamN\w
Dr. Denny Thanikkal
Published on Wednesday Feb 01, 2017
k`mNcn{X¯n Ht«sd hnhmZ§Ä¡pw ]nfÀ¸n\pw ImcWambn«pÅXmWv ZÞhntamN\s¯¡pdn¨pÅ {]t_m[\§Ä. tcmKw, hSn Fs¶ms¡ AÀYapÅ “ZÞw’ F¶ hm¡mWv ZÞhntamN\¯n\v B[mcambn«pÅXv. ZÞhn[n F¶ hm¡n\v in£mhn[n F¶pw ZÞhntamN\w F¶Xn\v in£bn \n¶pÅ Cfhv F¶pamWv AÀYw. ZÞhntamN\w F¶Xv ]m]tamN\w AÃ. ]m]tamN\w A\pcRvP\ IqZmibneqsS (Ip¼kmc¯neqsS) {]m]n¨tijw Hcph\v e`n¡mhp¶ XmXv¡menI in£bpsS tamN\amWv ZÞhntamN\w. A\pcÚ\ IqZmibn BZyIme§fn \nÀtZin¡s¸«ncp¶ ITn\Xcamb {]mbÝn¯§Ä¡v Cfhv F¶ coXnbnemWv k`bn ZÞhntamN\§Ä Bcw`n¨Xv. CXv ]m]¯nsâ XmXv¡menI in£bn \n¶pÅ hnSpXen\pÅ Ahkcambn \nÀhNn¡s¸«p.

]m]¯nsâ \nXyin£ Ip¼kmc¯neqsS ]cnlcn¡s¸Spt¼mgpw XmXv¡menI in£bn \n¶pÅ hnSpXen\v btYmNnXw ]cnlmcw sN¿Wsa¶pw AÃm¯]£w ip²oIcWØes¯ hnip²oIcW¯n\v hnt[bcmtI~­n hcpw F¶ ]c¼cmKX hnizmkw ]cnip² {^m³knkv ]m¸ “ImcpWy¯nsâ apJw’’ F¶ A¸kvtXmenI {]t_m[\¯n Du¶n¸dbp¶p­~v.

F´mWv ZÞhntamN\w?

Hcp hyàn ]m]w sN¿pt¼mÄ c~­v Xc¯nepÅ ^e§Ä DfhmIp¶p. \nXyin£bpw, Xm¡menI in£bpw. amcI]m]w sN¿p¶ hyàn ssZhhpambpÅ _Ôw \ãam¡pIbpw hc{]kmZw CÃmXm¡pIbpw sN¿p¶Xn\m \cIin£bv¡v AÀl\mIp¶p. CXmWv \nXyin£. F¶m Hmtcm ]m]hpw (amcI]m]hpw eLp]m]hpw) \nXyin£tbmsSm¸w Xm¡menI in£bv¡pw ImcWamIp¶p~­v. ]m]¯neqsS temIt¯mSpw temIhkvXp¡tfmSpw tXm¶p¶ A\mtcmKyIcamb A`n\nthis¯bmWv Xm¡menIin£ F¶XneqsS hnh£n¡p¶Xv. Xm¡menIin£ F¶ {]tbmKw ]et¸mgpw sXän²mcWmP\IamWv.

Xm¡menI in£ F¶XneqsS euInItamlw Ft¶m IqSpX ]m]§fnte¡v XpSÀ¶pw \bn¡m\nSbpÅ ]m]Icamb hmk\sbt¶m BWv bYmÀY¯n AÀYam¡p¶Xv. C¯cw ]m]m`n\nthi¯n \n¶v Cu temI¯n Bbncn¡pt¼mtgm acWm\´cw ip²oIcWØe¯pht¨m hnSpX t\tS­Xp­~v. Xm¡menIin£ \nXyin£bn \n¶v hyXykvXamWv.

Xm¡menIin£bpsS ]cnlmcw \nÝnXImew sIm­~v t\Smhp¶XmWv. F¶m \nXyin£bn \n¶pÅ hnSpXemIs« a\pjysâ {]hr¯nIÄ¡\pkrXambn«Ã, ssZh¯nsâ IcpWbn am{Xw A[njvTnXamWv. ]m]¯nsâ ]cnlmcIÀa§sfÃmw Xm¡menIin£bpsS hnSpXen\p am{Xta ImcWamIp¶pÅq F¶v kmcw. \nXyin£bnÂ\n¶pÅ hnSpX Ipcninse tbiphnsâ _enbneqsS e`yamb hc{]kmZw HgpIp¶ ]m]tamN\ IqZmibneqsS am{Xta km[yamIq.

Xm¡menIin£ F¶XneqsS hnh£n¡p¶ euInItamlw F¶ hkvXpX kXyamsW¶v PohnXm\p`h§Ä \s½ ]Tn¸n¡p¶p. Ip¼kmc¯n\ptijhpw ]m]§fnte¡v hogm\pÅ {]hWX \ne\n¡p¶Xv \ap¡v A\p`hthZyamWtÃm.

ZÞhntamN\¯neqsS ]m]tamN\w e`n¡psa¶v k` Hcn¡epw ]Tn¸n¨n«nÃ. ZÞhntamN\w Ip¼kmc¯n\p]IcapÅXÃ. ImcWw ZÞhntamN\¯neqsS Xm¡menIin£bn \n¶pÅ (euInItaml§fn \n¶pÅ) tamN\w am{Xta e`n¡p¶pÅq. ZÞhntamN\§fpsS am{Xw tbmKyXbn BÀ¡pw kzÀKwe`n¡pIbnÃ. kzÀK{]m]vXn¡v \nXyin£bn \n¶pÅ hnSpX A\nhmcyamWv.

ZÞhntamN\w k`m ]T\§fneqsS

1. BZnak`bn tcmKmhØbnepÅhcpsSbpw càkm£nXz¯n\v hn[n¡s¸«hcpsSbpw ]m]§Ä¡pÅ ]cnlmca\pjvTn¡m³ aäphnizmknIsf NpaXes¸Sp¯m\pÅ A[nImcw Ip¼kmc¡mÀ¡v \ÂInbncp¶p. CXmWv ZÞhntamN\§fpsS BZycq]w. 517  F]mthm³ Iu¬kn Ip¼kmc¯nse ITn\amb {]mbÝn¯ IÀa§Ä¡v ]Icambn eLphmb {]mÀY\IÄ, Zm\[Àa§Ä XpS§nbh \nÀtZin¨p. ]¯mw \qäm­phsc Ip¼kmc¯n e`n¡p¶ {]mbÝn¯ {]hr¯nIfpsS KW¯nemWv ZÞhntamN\§sf a\Ênem¡nbncp¶Xv. 1095þ DÀ_³ c~­ma³ amÀ]m¸ Ipcnipbp²¯n ]s¦Sp¡p¶hÀ¡v ZÞhntamN\w {]Jym]n¨tXmsSbmWv ZÞhntamN\§Ä¡v IqSpX AÀYhym]vXn ssIh¶Xv. hn. BÂ_À«v, hn. tXmakv AIzo\mkv XpS§nbhÀ k`bpsS ]pWy`Þmcs¯ ZÞhntamN\§fpsS B[mcambn AhXcn¸n¨p.

2. {InkvXp, k`sb `cta¸n¨Xpw hnip²À, X§fpsS amXrIm]camb PohnXwsIm~­v ]cnt]mjn¸n¨Xpamb ]pWyZÞmc¯nsâ tbmKyXbm hyànIÄ¡v Xm¡menI in£bn \n¶v hnSpX \evIm³ k`bv¡v A[nImcaps~­¶v ¢aâv Bdma³ amÀ¸m¸ 1343þ ]Tn¸n¨p.

3. A\pX]n¨v ]m]tamN\w tXSnb hnizmknIÄ¡v \nÝnXamb {]mÀY\IfpsSbpw ]pWy{]hr¯nIfpsSbpw ^eambn ZÞhntamN\w {]m]n¡m\pÅ amÀK§Ä {]Jym]n¡m³ k`bpsS ]pWy`Þmc¯nsâ ImcyhnNmcn¸pImc³ F¶ \nebn amÀ]m¸bv¡v A[nImcap~­v F¶v amÀ«n³ A©ma³ ]m¸ 1418 þ  {]Jym]n¨p. ZÞhntamN\w {]Jym]n¡m\pÅ amÀ]m¸bpsS A[nImcs¯ tNmZywsNbvX eqYdns\ Xncp¯ns¡m­~v setbm ]¯ma³ amÀ]m¸ 1520þ hyàamb {]t_m[\w \evIn.

4. s{Xt´mkv kq\ltZmkv (1563) ZÞhntamN\ \ntj[nIsf JÞn¨v ]pdwXÅnsb¦nepw ZÞhntamN\§fpsS Zpcp]tbmK§sf¡pdn¨v Bg¯n ]Tn¨v ]cn. ]nXmhn\v dnt¸mÀ«v kaÀ¸n¡m³ sa{Xm³ kanXnIsf NpaXes¸Sp¯n.

5. c­~mw h¯n¡m³ Iu¬knensâ {]t_m[\§fpsS shfn¨¯n 1967  t]mÄ Bdma³ amÀ]m¸ ZÞhntamN\§sf¡pdn¨pÅ k`bpsS Gähpw B[nImcnIamb ]T\w \ÂIn. ]pWyhm·mcpsS sFIyw (kacþkl\þhnPb k`IfpsS sFIyw) aqew Pohn¨ncn¡p¶hcpsS ]cnlmc {]hr¯nIfneqsS ip²oIcWmßm¡Ä¡v ZÞhntamN\w t\SnsbSp¡m\mIpsa¶ k`bpsS ]c¼cmKX hnizmks¯ Cu {]t_m[\tcJ Du¶n¸dªp.

6. ZÞhntamN\w k`bpsS aXt_m[\ {KÙ¯n (1471þ1479) ZÞhntamN\§sf kw_Ôn¨pÅ k`bpsS hnizmk{]t_m[\hpw AhbpsS hn\ntbmKhpw {]mbÝn¯IqZmibpsS ^e§tfmSp KmVambn _Ôs¸«hbmWv.

]m]¯n\pÅ in£IÄ

k`bpsS Cu {]t_m[\hpw {]tbmKhpw a\Ênem¡p¶Xn\p ]m]¯n\p c~­p ]cnWX ^e§fps­~¶p {Kln¡Ww. amcI]m]w ssZhhpambpÅ \½psS sFIys¯ CÃmbvasN¿p¶p. AXpsIm~­v \s½ AXp \nXyPoh\p tbmKyXbnÃm¯hcm¡n amäp¶p. Cu Ipdhns\ ]m]¯nsâ “\nXyin£” F¶mWp hnfn¡p¶Xv. AtXkabw Hmtcm ]m]hpw þ eLphmbn«pÅXpt]mepw þ krãnItfmSpÅ A\mtcmKyIcamb _Ôw DÄs¡mÅp¶XmWv.

Cu temI¯nÂht¨m acWm\´cw ip²oIcWØew F¶p hnfn¡s¸Sp¶ AhØbnÂht¨m AXnÂ\n¶p ip²oIcn¡s¸SWw. Cu ip²oIcWw, ]m]¯nsâ “ImenI in£’ F¶p hnfn¡s¸Sp¶ in£bnÂ\n¶v Hcphs\ kzX{´\m¡p¶p. Cu c­~p in£Ifpw ssZh¯nsâ {]XnImcambn k¦Â]n¡cpXv. CXv, ]m]¯nsâ kz`mh¯n \n¶p D~­mIp¶XmWv. Xo£vWamb kvt\l¯nÂ\n¶p ]pds¸Sp¶ am\km´c¯n\v Hcp inIvjbpw Ahtijn¡m¯hn[w ]m]nbpsS k¼qÀWamb ip²oIcWw t\Sm³ Ignbpw.

`mKnI ZÞhntamN\w e`n¡p¶Xn\v ssZhhnNmct¯mSpÅ PohnXhpw ]tcm]Imc {]hr¯nIfpw kt´mjIchpw kpJZmbIhpamb NcyIfn \n¶v a\x]qÀÆw amdn\n¡p¶Xpw hnizmk¯n\v ]ckyambn km£yw hln¡p¶Xpw klmbIamWv.

]qÀ® ZÞhntamN\¯n\pÅ IÀa§Ä

]qÀ® ZÞhntamN\w e`n¡p¶ IÀa§Ä Xmsg ]dbp¶hbmWv.

1. `àn]qÀÆw, AcaWn¡qdn Ipdbm¯ kabw hn. {KÙw hmbn¡p¶Xv.

2. ZnhyImcpWy\mYs\ ]cnip² IpÀ_m\bn AcaWn¡qdn Ipdbm¯ kabw Bcm[n¡p¶Xv.

3. Ipcninsâ hgn F¶ `àIrXyw A\pjvTn¡p¶Xv.

4. `àn]qÀÆw P]ame sNmÃp¶Xv.

5. k`bpsS Imt\m\ \akv¡mc§Ä sNmÃp¶Xv.

6. aq¶q Znhk¯n Ipdbm¯ [ym\§fn ]s¦Sp¡p¶Xv.

Ch hnizmknIfpsS Cãm\pkcWw GXp Znhkhpw t\Smhp¶ ]qÀWZÞhntamN\§fmWv.

7. amÀ]m¸bpsS BinÀhmZw (Sn.hn, tdUntbm XpS§nbhbneqsSbpw) kzoIcn¡p¶Xpw, amÀ]m¸ \nÀt±in¡p¶ Znhk§fpw hÀj§fpw Imcy£aambn BNcn¡p¶Xpw ]qÀ®ZÞhntamN\w \evIp¶p.

]qÀ®ZÞhntamN\w e`n¡p¶Xn\v \mev Imcy§Ä BhiyamWv: Ip¼kmcn¨v ]m]tamN\w t\SWw. hn. IpÀ_m\ kzoIcn¨v ssZsshIy¯n Bbncn¡Ww, \nÝbn¡s¸«ncn¡p¶ `àIrXyw {i²m]qÀÆw A\pjvTn¡Ww. amÀ]m¸bpsS \ntbmK§Ä¡p th­~n {]mÀYn¡Ww.

Npcp¡¯nÂ, ZÞhntamN\§Ä k`bpsS hnizmkkXy¯nsâ `mKamWv. ]m]t¯mSpÅ a\pjy{]IrXnbpsS Bkànsb \nÀhocyam¡m³ klmbn¡p¶ `àIrXy§fpw ]cnXymK {]hr¯nIfpw A\pjvTn¡m³ hnizmknIsf {]tNmZn¸n¡pI F¶ e£yt¯msSbmWv k` ZÞhntamN\§Ä \ÂIp¶Xv. ZÞhntamN\¯nsâ ASnØm\w {InkvXp k`sb `ctaev]n¨ hc{]kmZ ]qÀ®XbmWv. k` Pohn¨ncn¡p¶hcpw acn¨hcpamb hnizmknIÄ¡v Xs¶ `ctaev]n¨ncn¡p¶ ]pWy`Þmc¯n \n¶v \ÂIp¶ A\p{KlamWv ZÞhntamN\§Ä.

ip²oIcWmßm¡Ä¡v kack`bpsSbpw hnPbk`bpsSbpw am[yØw hgnbmWv ZÞhntamN\§Ä e`n¡p¶Xv. F¶mÂ, k`m Ncn{X¯n ZÞhntamN\§Ä Gsd Zpcp]tbmKw sN¿s¸«n«p­~v.

XÂ^eambn k`mKm{X¯n henb ]nfÀ¸n\v hgnsbmcp§pIbpw sNbvXn«p­~v.
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